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01-Jun-2020 08:55

Under the final division agreed by the Carolingian family under the Treaty of Verdun, the first east Frankish kingdom was created which included all German land east of the river Rhine (except Frisia which was included in the kingdom of Lotharingia) and the west bank territories of the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer and Worms.As the Carolingian Frankish empire weakened, local entities acquired positions of greater political and military importance.The "Bavarian" vote seems to have become attributed to the position of Pfalzgraf, both titles being held by Otto II Duke of Bavaria when he voted as such for the first time in 1237, but the process by which this occurred is far from clear.An additional vote was granted to Heinrich I Duke of Lower Bavaria in the 1273 election of King Rudolf I, as a practical solution to the opposition of Otakar II King of Bohemia.The accessions of Heinrich II in 1002, and his successor Konrad II in 1024, appear to have combined a hereditary and an elective element, although on each occasion there was some competition for the post as the primary sources name several unsuccessful candidates.The elective principle was first truly established in 1077 with the selection as king (by the German magnates alone, without the intervention of the Pope) of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, who was obliged to recognise the non-hereditary nature of his appointment.This represented a temporary revival of the original "Bavarian" vote.

After the election of King Heinrich I in 919, the new monarch secured his position by negotiating what amounted to friendship treaties with the local dukes in Bavaria, Lotharingia and Swabia.

Nevertheless, during the 11th to 13th centuries, Germany achieved a degree of political and territorial integrity as a unit which was not to be repeated until the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871. Although the elevations of Konrad I in 911 and Heinrich I in 919 were described as "elections", the oath of allegiance and acclamation appear to have been the key elements of the procedure.

With the accession of the Ottonian kings, the elective element declined even further, especially as each king started nominating his successor during his lifetime.

The others included the Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians, Swabians and Bavarians.

II "der Deutsche", son of Emperor Louis I, was the first member of the Carolingian dynasty to be installed as a ruler in Germany when he received the kingdom of Bavaria in 825.At the same time, the centres of power fluctuated between the various families, depending on which held the most titles and property.



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