Non sedating antihistamines side effects


19-May-2020 20:40

Often referred to as the nonsedating antihistamines.

They compete with histamine for histamine receptor type 1 (H1) receptor sites in the blood vessels, GI tract, and respiratory tract, which, in turn, inhibits physiologic effects that histamine normally induces at the H1 receptor sites.

They can be used prn, but adverse effects may limit their usefulness when taken on a daily basis.

Some patients tolerate the adverse effects with prolonged use, but they may experience cognitive impairment, and driving skills may be affected.

For this reason, some second-generation antihistamines are available as combination preparations containing a decongestant.

They are often preferred for first-line therapy of allergic rhinitis, especially for seasonal or episodic symptoms, because of their excellent efficacy and safety profile. The second-generation oral antihistamines currently available in the United States are cetirizine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, and loratadine.

Most cases of allergic rhinitis respond to pharmacotherapy.

Common first-generation agent available OTC in the United States.

Competes with histamine for H1 receptors in GI tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract, reducing hypersensitivity reactions. Bedtime dosing may be useful if sedation is a problem. Second-generation agent with a rate of sedation not significantly different from that of placebo.

Competes with histamine for H1 receptors in GI tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract, reducing hypersensitivity reactions. Pseudoephedrine stimulates vasoconstriction by directly activating alpha-adrenergic receptors of the respiratory mucosa.

The newer, second-generation (ie, nonsedating) antihistamines are usually preferable to avoid sedation and other adverse effects associated with the older, first-generation antihistamines.

Ocular antihistamine drops (for eye symptoms), intranasal antihistamine sprays, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic sprays, and short courses of oral corticosteroids (reserved for severe, acute episodes only) may also provide relief.

Competes with histamine for H1 receptors on GI tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract, reducing hypersensitivity reactions. Pseudoephedrine stimulates vasoconstriction by directly activating alpha-adrenergic receptors of the respiratory mucosa.



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